Logical Fallacies (a partial list of common varieties)


1)  Hasty generalization: We wasted our money on hurricane preparedness.  Sandy caused almost no damage in Maryland.



2)  Missing the point or non sequitur (“it does not follow”) [so closely related to “red herring” that I would consider them the same error]


Playing games on campus should be banned.

My roommate flunked his chemistry test while playing Humans v. Zombies. [non sequitur version]


Playing games on campus should be banned.

Humans v. Zombies teaches immoral competition.  [red herring version]



3)  False cause or post hoc ergo propter hoc (“after this therefore because of this”)



4)  Slippery slope or “thin edge of the wedge” or “camel’s nose under the tent flap” etc.



5)  Weak analogy or false analogy



6)  Appeal to false authority (sometimes shortened to “appeal to authority”)



7)  Appeal to popular belief or ad populum



8)  Attacking the person who holds the opposing belief, or ad hominum (“to the man”) and “and you do it too!” or et tu quoque



9)  Appeal to pity or ad misericordiam



10)  Appeal to ignorance or ad ignorantium



11)  Straw man



12)  False dichotomy or “either/or” or “fallacy of the excluded middle term”



13)  Begging the question or petitio principii or “circular reasoning”



14)  Equivocation or using an ambiguous word deceptively twice