104 Style Sheet
Students should know that every academic discipline requires
writers to conform to certain standards of visual
presentation or "format."
Most disciplines' formats differ from
one another, but all are important to readers.
Because this course is taught in the English Department, papers should
conform to the MLA Stylesheet, a summary of which is presented
below. For full instructions, see the Harbrace College
Handbook (11th edition) or the MLA Handbook for Writers of
Research Papers (3rd edition, 1988). ("MLA" stands for the Modern Language Association,
a major professional organization in the field of English literature and
composition studies.) These rules
are not trivial. They help to establish readers' sense of your
authority. Ask your instructor and Writing Center tutors
Overall Paper Format:
All papers must be typed or computer printed, double‑spaced,
with appropriate margins. Papers
should not include separate pages for titles or Works Cited sections, and
no blank pages or special binders should be used.
All papers must identify themselves on
the first page by title, author, course and section
number, and date. All pages
must be numbered. Each paper must end with an accurate and properly
constructed "Works Cited" section.
All sources quoted, paraphrased, or summarized (including handouts you
get in class) must be acknowledged in parentheses
in your text, as in this direct quotation of a claim that "the cost of
elective pregnancy termination . . . must be approaching $500 million a
year" (Wilson 19).
Use endnotes only to explain complex indebtedness.
The course encourages
discussion outside of class. If your paper has benefited
in any important way from the ideas of others,
acknowledge them in an endnote to the first sentence which says
something like this:
This paper benefited from conversations in Michelle
Tokarczyk's English 104 class, especially from Edith Piaf's comments
on poverty and arts funding. I
also thank my Writing Center tutor,
Nancy Atwell, whose conferences helped me define my thesis
about Ginsberg's struggles to write in poverty.
This note protects its
author from violation of the Honor Code, helping
to explain how it might be that Edith's paper contains similar ideas about poverty and the arts, or that another
writer who talked with Nancy Atwell
had a similar thesis about Ginsberg.
Remember, acknowledged collaboration on a paper is not
plagiarism unless your teacher has told you specifically not to collaborate (e.g., on a take‑home exam, etc.).
Common Types of "Works Cited" Citations:
Book with one author:
White Noise. N.Y.:
Book with two or three
Fornara, Charles W., and Loren J. Samons II.
Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles.
Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.
Book composed of essays
edited by one or more authors:
Chafe, William H., and Harvard Sitkoff, eds.
A History of Our Time:
Readings on Postwar America. 3rd
ed. N.Y.: Oxford U
Article in a magazine or
newspaper (note that a translation credit comes after the title of both articles
Tolstaya, Tatyana. "In
Cannibalistic Times." Trans.
The New York Review of Books
XXXVIIII:7 (April 11, 1991)
A single article reprinted in
a collection (e.g., Chafe & Sitkoff):
Tolkien, J.R.R. "Beowulf:
The Monsters and the Critics" (1936)
Rpt. in R.D. Fulk ed., Interpretations of "Beowulf": A
Critical Anthology. Bloomington,
Ind.: Indiana U P, 1991.
A movie or video:
The Manchurian Candidate.
Dir. John Frankenheimer. M.C.
Internet web page (note that
the date is essential—web page contents change):
"Gilman Inducted into National Women's Hall of Fame." Charlotte Perkins Gilman Newsletter 5.1 (Spring 1995): n. pag. Online. Internet. 8 Dec. 1995. Available http://orchard.cortland.edu/PerkinsGilmanNews.html.