How is scholarly intellectual property made?
All specialized knowledge of the sort scholars call "intellectual property" is created by a professional community populated by specially trained researchers who share both abstract (non-tangible) and concrete (tangible) things. Learning to use these discipline-specific tools usually takes about a decade in the modern college and university system, but even first year students need to know what these "fields" or "disciplines" look like. For the example below, I have used the fields of Economics and Management to illustrate the abstract and concrete elements that we might call the "tools" by which intellectual property is made. Note that, at larger colleges and universities, Economics is considered a discipline separate from Management, though both share enough common tools that economists can talk to and influence management scholars, and managements scholars can talk to and influence economists.
Abstract Tools for Creating Knowledge in the Disciplines of Economics and Management
theories of knowledge to explain data
decentralized decision making in consumer marketing
AIDS-related mortality and household economy
a set of agreed-upon, “legal” research methods to produce data
product review construction
whole corporate sites vs. documents vs. people/scholars as “sources”
terms of art for describing concepts essential to the field
"costing," "pricing," "price-point" and "customer profile"
Concrete Social and Historical Tools for Publicizing and Evaluating Knowledge
books, journals, other media where discipline-authorized knowledge is shared & debated
Harvard Business Review, Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal; American Economic Journal: Applied Economics
university presses, selective professional publishers, and professional web sites which produce and make available those texts
Harvard University Press, Basic Books (Note that HUP is "inside" the scholarly culture in a way that BB is not--how does that affect what they publish and how their books are received by the discipline?)
academic departments & professional organizations who teach & test the members of the discipline
Goucher’s Economics Dept., the AEA (American Economic Association), the MLA (Modern Language Association). What does that suggest about how Marketing views itself as a profession? Note also that there are chapters dedicated to marketing to specific national and ethnic groups.)
networks of peer-reviewers who test and guarantee the quality of discipline-authorized articles, books, and web-based materials
Lydia Harris, Jack Carter, Gina Shamshak, Teresa Romano (members of the Economics Department)