Typology, n. 1. The study of symbolic representation, esp. of the origin and meaning of Scripture types; also transf. symbolic significance, representation, or treatment; symbolism. (Earliest attested uses are mid-19th-century.)

Erich Auerbach:

"Figural interpretation establishes a connection between two events or persons in such a way that the first signifies not only itself but also the second, while second involves or fulfills the first. The two poles of a figure are separated in time, but both, being real events or persons, are within temporality. The are both contained in the flowing stream which is historical life, and only the comprehension, the intellectus spiritualis, of their interdependence is a spiritual act" (Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature).

Type (precursor/question)                                                        Antitype (fulfillment/answer)

Eve, imperfect woman, sins, creates the need for Salvation          Mary, perfected woman, bears Jesus, the perfected man, in virginity

Adam, imperfect man, sins, creates the need for Salvation           Jesus, man perfected, dies for humanity's sins and saves them

Moses in desert strikes rock with staff & water springs forth        Roman soldier's spear pierces Jesus' side; blood & water spring forth

Jews cross the Jordan River into Promised Land                         Jesus baptized in the Jordan River into God's kingdom

Sin I                                                                                               Sin II

Jordan I                                                                                          Jordan II