Greek Terms of Value

    Practice applying these to the works of literature we have read.  Latin synonyms or near synonyms are included in italics within the square brackets, which means you can also look for those ideas operating in the "Roman/Latin" portion of the course.

Source: Helen North, Sophrosyne: Self‑Knowledge and Self‑Restraint  in Greek Literature (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1966).  Also see North's "The Mare, the Vixen, and the Bee: Sophrosyne as the Virtue of Women in Antiquity," Illinois Classical Studies 2 (1977) 35-48.

The Apollonian maxims from the temple at Delphi:

     Gnothi seauton.  [Know thyself.]

     Meden agan.  [Nothing in excess.]


Bad or Dangerous Qualities/Ideas          Good Qualities/Ideas

Akolasia [wantonness, luxuria]        Aidos [modesty, pudor]

Anaideia [shamelessness, impudens]

Anaisthesia [insensitivity]                 Agape [selfless love]

Apatheia [absence of pathos]         Andreia [manliness, fortitudo]                                                    

                                                    Apragmosyne  [aloofness, minding one's own business]                                                  

Atasthalia  [arrogant recklessness]  Arete [courage, greatness (also in a knife-like ridge in mountaineering, highest point)]

                                                     Charis [grace]

                                                     Dike [custom, justice, iustitia]

Epithymia [appetite]                       Enkrateia [self‑control, continentia]

Eros [physical love]                        Eusebeia [piety, pietas]

Hedone [pleasure, voluptas]           Euteleia [frugality, frugalitus]

Hybris [arrogance, presumption]    Hagneia [purity, chastity, castitas]

                                                    Hygieia [soul health]

                                                    Hesychia [quietness]

                                                    Homoiosis theoi [assimilation to God]

                                                    Homonia [harmony]

                                                    Kairos [the opportune]

                                                    Karteria [endurance]

                                                    Katharotes [purity]

                                                    Kosmiotes [orderliness]

                                                    Kosmos [order]

Mania [madness]                          Mania sophron [sane madness, wineless intoxication]

                                                   Melete thanaton [the practice of death--compare to Christian mysticism and Zen Buddhism]

                                                   Mesotes [the Mean]

                                                   Metriotes [moderation]

Orge [anger, ira]                           Pathei mathos [from suffering comes wisdom]

Pleonexia [overreaching, cupido regni] Phronesis [prudence, practical wisdom, prudentia]

Polypragmosyne [meddling]          Prepon [the fitting, decorum]

                                                     Sophrosyne [self-control, self-knowledge, restraint]

                                                   Thneta phronein [think mortal thoughts]

Tryphe [extravagance]                   Tremosyne [endurance]

                                                   Tyche [fortune, fortuna]